REFEREE. A person to whom a dispute has been referred so that they can resolve it. His verdict is called a prize. Empty referee; Reference. Governmental body empowered to settle disputes. Judges sometimes use the term “court” to refer to themselves in the third person, as in “the court read the pleadings.” Non-insolvency proceedings in which an applicant or creditor attempts to submit its claim to a debtor`s future wages. In other words, the creditor requests that part of the debtor`s future salary be paid to him for a debt owed to him. With respect to civil actions in “equity” and not in “law”. In English legal history, courts of “law” could order the payment of damages and could offer no other remedy (see damages). A separate “fairness” tribunal could order someone to do something or stop something (e.g., injunction). In U.S.
jurisprudence, federal courts have both legal and just power, but the distinction is always important. For example, a jury trial is generally available in “legal cases,” but not in “fairness” cases. A court decision in a previous case with facts and points of law similar to a dispute currently pending in court. Judges generally “follow precedents,” that is, they use principles established in previous cases to decide new cases that have similar facts and raise similar legal issues. A judge will disregard precedents if a party can prove that the previous case was ill-decided or that it differs significantly from the current case. Latin, which means “you have the body”. A writ of habeas corpus is usually a court order that requires law enforcement to produce a detainee they are holding and to justify the detainee`s continued detention. Federal judges receive habeas corpus petitions from state prison inmates who claim their prosecutor`s office violated state-protected rights in some way. An allegation in an indictment or information accusing an accused of a crime. An indictment or denunciation may contain allegations that the defendant committed more than one crime. Each charge is called an indictment.
A full-time lawyer hired by federal courts to legally defend defendants who cannot afford a lawyer. The judiciary administers the Federal Defence Counsel Programme in accordance with criminal law. Instructions from a judge to the jury before it begins deliberations on the substantive questions to be answered and the legislation to be applied. Latin, which means “in law”. Something that exists by law. Similar to an injunction, it is a short-term order issued by a judge prohibiting certain actions until a full hearing can be held. Often referred to as TRO. In his speech to the bar, he repeatedly referred to his time as a trainee lawyer.
The right as set out in previous court decisions. Synonymous with precedent. Similar to the common law, which stems from tradition and judicial decisions. French, which means “on the bench”. All the judges of a court of appeal sit together to hear a case, contrary to the usual decision of the three-judge chambers. In the Ninth Judicial Circuit, a bench jury consists of 11 randomly selected judges. Latin, which means “for the court”. In appellate courts, it often refers to an unsigned opinion. Latin, which means “of one`s own will”. Often designates a court acting in a case without either party asking for it. Latin, which means in the chamber of a judge.
Often means outside the presence of a jury and the public. In private. 1. If a case or claim involves account issues or other complicated details that require meticulous consideration and for that reason cannot be presented to a jury, it is customary to submit all or part of the case to the decision of an auditor or arbitrator, and the matter is then called a referral. Taking this word in its strict and technical usage, it refers to a way of defining issues that differs from “arbitration” in that the latter word implies the filing of a controversy without a lawsuit being brought, while “reference” matters a pending claim and a formulated or raised question that is sent (not the controversy itself). Therefore, arbitration is used instead of court proceedings; while reference is a type of decision used in the context of legal proceedings. And the term “reference” differs from “hearing or trial” in that it is the usual means of deciding issues and questions before and through the courts with the assistance of juries, if necessary; Although it is an employment of persons outside the judiciary who are not an integral part of the court to decide the decision on certain matters that are not convenient to be heard before the court itself. Abbott 2. Show, allude, direct or refer.
It is the use of the word in mediation and literature, where a word or sign is introduced to draw the reader`s attention to another place in the document, book, document, etc. In this context, it is important to emphasize the importance of directing it to such another connection. In criminal law, the constitutional guarantee that an accused receives a fair and impartial trial. In civil law, the legal rights of a person who is confronted with an adverse act that threatens liberty or property. An action brought by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a claim that the defendant failed to comply with a legal obligation that caused harm to the plaintiff. A legal procedure to deal with the debt problems of individuals and companies; in particular, a case filed under one of the chapters of title 11 of the United States Code. All shares of ownership of the debtor at the time of bankruptcy. The estate technically becomes the temporary legal owner of all of the debtor`s assets. A written statement filed in court or an appeal that explains a party`s legal and factual arguments. The study of the law and the structure of the legal system The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a particular type of case.
It is also used as a synonym for jurisdiction, i.e. the geographical area over which the court has territorial jurisdiction to rule on cases. Written statements submitted to the court outlining a party`s legal or factual allegations about the case. Latin, which means “new”. A de novo study is a completely new study. The de novo review of the appeal does not imply any consideration for the trial judge`s decision. The legal system that originated in England and is now used in the United States is based on the articulation of legal principles in a historical succession of judicial decisions. Common law principles can be changed by statute. The chapter of the Bankruptcy Act that provides for the adjustment of the debts of a person with a regular income is often referred to as the “employees” plan.
Chapter 13 allows a debtor to keep their assets and use their disposable income to pay off debts over time, usually three to five years. Court approval, usually for law enforcement officers, to conduct a search or arrest. Latin for “friend of the court”. This is counsel formally offered to the court in a pleading filed by an entity interested in the case but not by a party to it. A protocol that contains the complete history of each case in the form of short chronological entries summarizing the legal proceedings. Evidence suggesting that an accused did not commit the crime. An offence punishable by one year in prison or less. See also criminal offences. 1. The question of the dispute between the parties to the dispute; 2. To be sent officially, such as in a court that makes an order. A special condition imposed by the court requires a person to work – without pay – for a civil or non-profit organization.
The Sentencing Reform Act 1984 abolished probation in favour of a particular penal system, in which the level of punishment is determined by penal directives. Now, without the possibility of parole, the court-imposed jail sentence is the actual time the person spends in prison. A civil injustice, not a criminal one. A negligent or intentional breach of person or property, other than breach of contract. a director, officer or person who exercises control over the debtor; a partnership in which the debtor is a general partner; a general partner of the debtor; or a relative of a general partner, director, officer or person who exercises control over the debtor.